Master's degree in Molecular and Medical Biotechnology

Molecular Pharmacology

Course code
4S003674
Name of lecturer
Ilaria Decimo
Coordinator
Ilaria Decimo
Number of ECTS credits allocated
6
Academic sector
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY
Language of instruction
English
Period
I semestre dal Oct 1, 2019 al Jan 31, 2020.

Lesson timetable

Go to lesson schedule

Learning outcomes

The objectives of the course are : How the drugs produce their effects How the body and the cells respond to the drugs How to develop a new drug Examples of new biotech drug generations

Syllabus

PHARMACOKINETCS
General principles of drug delivery
Absorption: kinetics, routes, advantages and disadvantages
Distribution: concept of Vd, distribution equilibrium kinetics, barriers
Elimination: elimination pathways and kinetics; concepts of clearance and half-life
Control of the plasma concentration of drugs: operating models
Dosage corrections: variables to consider

DRUG-RECEPTOR INTERACTIONS
Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the drug-receptor interaction
Characteristics and kinetics of interaction
Quantitative aspects of drug-receptor interaction and analysis of binding curves
Concepts of affinity-powers and effectiveness
Relations between employment and receptor response
Overview of the methods used to quantify the link, the type of interaction and the answers
Concept and forms of competition between drugs
Evaluation of the effects of drugs

DRUG METABOLISM
Generality and organization
CYPs
Metabolic pharmacogenetics
Metabolic interactions between drugs and food

DRUG DEVELOPMENT
Industrial strategies
Preclinical research: goals, objectives, limits and rules
Clinical research: Setting and conducting clinical studies, terminology
Types of clinical trials
Critical procedures and aspects of a clinical trial

RECEPTORS

Ligand gated-CHANNEL
Structural classification and methods of study
Molecular characteristics of the different classes
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: structure, functions and pharmacology
The GABAA receptor: structure, functions and pharmacology
Glutamate receptors: classification, functions

RECEPTORS COUPLED WITH PROTEIN G
Classification
Molecular and activation characteristics
G (trimeriche) proteins: classification, functions, activation and pharmacology
effectors
The nucleotide messengers: synthesis, degradation, effects and pharmacology
Inositol: liberation, metabolism, effects and pharmacology
The calcium ion:
Sympathetic system: organization and function; direct and indirect catecholaminergic agonists; beta receptor antagonists (beta-blockers)
Muscarinic system: agonists and antagonists

Nitric oxide
Synthesis, functions and signal transduction
Pharmacology of nitrioxide
Organic nitrogen derivatives: mechanism of action and fields of use

RECEPTORS FOR GROWTH FACTORS
Classification and molecular structure
activation mechanisms and signal transduction
MAPK: types, functions and biochemical cascades

IONIC CHANNELS
Classification, function and structure
Examples of active drugs on voltage-gated ion channels: mechanism of action, effects and fields of use

INTRACELLULAR RECEPTORS
Classification and agonists
Molecular structure and function
Signal transduction
Pharmacology and effects of glucocorticoids

ACTIVE DRUGS ON MICRO-ORGANISMS
Classification and mechanism of action of: antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal
Resistance mechanisms

PHARMACOLOGY OF INFLAMMATION
The inflammatory response
Metabolism of eicosanoids
Receptors and functions
NSAIDs: mechanisms of action, classifications, main therapeutic and toxic effects

PHARMACOLOGICAL TARGET
In vitro (cell cultures)
transgenesis

CELLULAR THERAPY
Definition and classification of stem cells
Drugs based on the use of stem cells
Examples of therapies based on the use of stem cells for brain diseases

BIOLOGICAL / BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DRUGS
Main differences between traditional drugs and biological drugs
Production of biological / biotechnological drugs

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES and MOLECULAR TARGET ANTI-CANCER DRUGS
Molecular structure of antibodies
Effector functions of antibodies
Characteristics of the antigen-antibody binding
Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies

RECOMBINANT VACCINES
Mechanism of action of vaccines
Classes of recombinant vaccines

GENIC THERAPY
Definition
Gene transfer
in vivo and ex-vivo
Viral and non-viral vectors
Examples of gene therapy for the treatment of genetic diseases

LABORATORIES: Cell cultures and confocal microscopy

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
B. Katzung Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 2014
Clementi Fumagalli Farmacologia Generale e Molecolare (Edizione 5) Edra 2018 978-88-214-4436-4

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of learning includes a written exam in the middle course and an oral exam at the end of the course

The written test consists of a test that includes multiple choice questions, open questions and exercises and aims to verify the knowledge and the ability to analyze the principles of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
The oral exam consists of an interview that verifies the knowledge acquired on the classes of drugs and their receptors, the identification of new pharmacological targets and the whole process that leads to the development of new drugs. It evaluates the property of language, the ability to connect in a systemic way the acquired knowledge and the analytical and argumentative capacity.
The evaluation of both the written test and the oral test is expressed with a mark out of thirty.
The final grade is the average of the marks obtained in the two tests expressed in thirtieths.

For non-attending students there is a single oral exam which verifies the entire program carried out, according to the criteria above.

The content of the textbooks and lessons held in the classroom is part of the program and further teaching material is available on the e-learning platform.





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